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What is callisto ?

Besides Ganymede and Titan, Jovian moon, better known as Callisto is a large satellite in the solar system. At a diameter of 4820 km, Callisto is about 40% bigger in size than the Moon and only a third the size of the Earth. Callisto has an exterior area of 7.30×107 km², bigger than that of Asia.

Using the first telescope, Galileo Galilei discovered Callisto in the year 1610, becoming one of the Galilean satellites. Having almost the identical diameter with Mercury, Callisto is half ice and half rock giving it far lesser mass than Mercury.

Callisto’s surface is very cratered, old and completely saturated because the new crater blooms on an old one. Its surface looked like mud pelted by raindrops, but frozen in ice and stone.

As one of solar system’s body with extremely huge numbers of craters, Callisto has no specific geographical surface but those related with impacts. There are no major Callistoan Mountains, linea or ridges. Some of its craters, mainly the large Valhalla form cracked concentric ring structures.

The molecular oxygen and carbon dioxide of Callisto’s atmosphere is very weak and it has 150 km below subsurface of ocean. However, there have been theory about extraterrestrial living creature in the ocean of the Jovian moon, which focused mainly in Europa. Callisto is actually one of the candidate site for future base due to its zero radiation in a region around Jupiter and having a stabilized geological surface. By contrast, it is located in one of the extreme radiation-saturated areas around Jupiter. The surface of Callisto is covered with sulfur as well as continuous volcanic eruption which is the same state earth has before. Callisto is identified orbiting Jupiter at 1,880,000 km, making it the fourth Galilean moon. By comparison, the Moon orbits the Earth at a distance of approximately 400,000 km, considerably closer.

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